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Ultraviolet RaysUltraviolet Rays :
Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV. It is named because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the color violet.
Useful Links :

What is ultraviolet light?

Projects :
What duration of ultraviolet radiation kills bacteria?
Modeling of these rays
What Materials Glow Under a Black or Ultraviolet Light?


Bio-Insecticides And Pesticides :

Bio-Insecticides And Pesticides

Biopesticides and insecticides are biochemical pesticides that are naturally occurring substances that control pests by nontoxic mechanisms. Conventional pesticides, by contrast, are generally synthetic materials that directly kill or inactivate the pests.

Useful Links

Pesticides in Organic Farming
An intro to Organic Pesticides 

The effects of water impurities on plant growth:

The effects of water impurities on plant growth

It more or less depends on what type of impurities are? If impure water has harmful chemicals then it will definitely affect the growth of the plant. In this project, you need to find out about the impurities which harm plants as well as those from which plant started to grow faster.

Useful links :

Is it important for the greenhouse grower

Waste Water Management:

Waste Water Management

Water is one of the most important assets of human life. Even though their earth is surrounded by 70 % of water, a large percentage of the human population is facing the problem of water shortage. With the help of effective water management, we can reduce this problem to some extent.

There are two important ways for water management :

1.Waste Water Management:  The process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic.
2.Industrial Water Management

Useful Links : 

Presentation on Sewage Treatment
Water Management Project Video 

Pocket guide for first aid: 

Major damage can be avoided if proper first aid is given on time. You can create your own first aid book which has all the necessary material required by the patient.

Agriculture :

1. indigenous designs of farm machinery, agricultural implements, and practices.
2. issues related to animal health and food safety
3. ecologically sustainable farming methods
4. innovative/inexpensive/improved/ indigenous technology/conservation and
transport of agricultural and animal products and food materials.
5. rainwater harvesting and storage
6. river water sharing, efficient and equitable use.
7. application of biotechnology, microbiology, genetic engineering for improved and
high yielding varieties.

Read More

How Oil Spills Affect the life of Sea Species: 

Oil Spills Affect the life of Sea Species

In our life, we have seen multiple occurrences of oil spills around us. Most recently world was shaken and shocked by the magnitude of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The effect of these spills was not much on humans with respect to animals living there.

More Projects :

Microbial fuel cells


Sterilization of Water using Bleaching Powder:

Sterilization of Water using Bleaching Powder
Sodium hypo chloride is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypo chloride solution, commonly known as bleach or Clorox, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. Sodium hypo chloride has been used for the disinfection of drinking water. A concentration equivalent to about 1 liter of household bleach per 4000 liters of water is used. This process is called Shock Chlorination. Shock chlorination is used in many swimming pools, water wells, springs, and other water sources to reduce the bacterial and algal residue in the water.

Disadvantage: Its effect on health is still widely debated.

Bio-Diesel and Bio-Petrol:
 Bio-Diesel and Bio-Petrol

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, propyl or ethyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat (tallow)) with alcohol.

Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used alone or blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel can also be used as a low carbon alternative to heating oil.

Analysis of Organic Fertilizers

Fertilizer (or fertilizer) is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.[1] A recent assessment found that about 40 to 60% of crop yields are attributable to commercial fertilizer use.

Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include manure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, humic acid, and guano. Although the density of nutrients in organic material is comparatively modest, they have many advantages. The majority of nitrogen supplying organic fertilizers contain insoluble nitrogen and act as a slow-release fertilizer. By their nature, organic fertilizers increase physical and biological nutrient storage mechanisms in soils, mitigating risks of over-fertilization. Organic fertilizer nutrient content, solubility, and nutrient release rates are typically much lower than mineral (inorganic) fertilizers

 Measuring Solubility of Saturated Solutions
Measuring Solubility of Saturated Solutions

Saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or a gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the used solvent as well as on temperature and pressure.

Study the Setting of Cement
Study the Setting of Cement

Cement sets when mixed with water by way of a complex series of hydration chemical reactions still only partly understood. The different constituents slowly hydrate and crystallize while the interlocking of their crystals gives to cement its strength. After the initial setting, immersion in warm water will speed upsetting. In Portland cement, gypsum is added as a compound preventing cement flash setting. The time it takes for cement to set varies; and can take anywhere from twenty minutes for the initial set, to twenty-four hours, or more, for the final set.

Some Related Topics on Cement:

Portland Cement Hydration
Environment Consideration on Cement
Use of Waste Plastic in cement Concrete

Measure the Amount of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Measure the Amount of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Acetic Acid diagram

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid that when undiluted is also called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is an acidic liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid (ethanoic acid). It also may come in a diluted form. The pH of table vinegar ranges from 2.4 to 3.4[1] (higher if diluted). The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4% to 8% by volume for table vinegar[2] and up to 18% for pickling vinegar.

10th-grade chemistry projects
I received a lot of emails related to school projects in chemistry. I have selected a few topics which I am going to discuss in the next few posts. In them, I will discuss the given topics, methods of doing them and what is the importance of these experiments in real life.

Redox reactions
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, a variation of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's law(Details click here)
Electrolysis and laws of electrolysis(elementary idea)
Dry cell, Electrolyte cells, and galvanic cells; lead accumulator
EMF of the cell
Standard electrode potential
Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells.Fuel cells,
More Chemistry Projects

Related PDF :

Acetic Acid Content on Vinegar
The Concentration of Acetic Acid in Vinegar

Useful Links :

Know more about Acids and Basics 



Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.[1][2] It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

1. Mathematical models related to the environment.
2. Mathematical models of heart, brain, kidney, language, bone, etc.
3. Computer diagnosis of human diseases.
4. Probability of the accuracy of calculators and computers.
5. applications of mathematical equations used in understanding various nuclear and
sub-nuclear processes.
6. mathematical models of physical geography such as rotation and revolution of
earth etc.
7. applications of mathematical equations to biological solutions.
8. studies of storage and retrieval techniques for computer systems.
9. statistics and random number problems.


History Project Ideas


Hydrology Projects

Urbanization : 

A large number of people are migrating towards the city to find a better job. According to one estimate in 2030 around 60 % of the world population would live in the city. You can make a model of this project where you can show people who are migrating to cities where they are getting good jobs while leaving behind a calm and peaceful life of villages.

Global Warming :

You can make a project on global warming as well as how it is affecting our earth. If you want, you can explain the factors due to which global warming takes place.


Trebuchet Project

Bending Light
Working models of production of electrical energy from mechanical sources:

Windmill Power Generation System
Water Turbine Power Generation 
Solar Power Generator 

Design of fuel-efficient or no pollution engines:

Compressed Air Cars 
Air Powered Bike
Hydrogen-Powered Vehicle

Design of solar heating devices :

Solar Water Heater

Projects Based on Solar Energy :

Solar Energy Projects

Mechanism of extraction, storage, and processing of fossil fuels.
Principles and design of solar panels and solar still.
Renewable Energy Projects
Effects of landscaping and architecture on energy consumption.
Methods of heat retention in materials.

Physics Projects


History of Computers :

This project is for kids of class 7th or 8th. It would be very fascinating for them to know more about the computer which they know now and it was when they were not even born. With this experiment, they will amaze how the much computer has changed after its invention.

Computer Shop

This project is about shop management, it is a very advanced topic and would be recommended for 12th-grade students. In this project, they would be made a computer shop software that keeps the data about stocks in the shop, daily sells and things like that.

Travel Agency for Class 12th


Railway Ticket Reservation :

This is a software that is used as ticket windows of railway platforms. They book your ticket and allot seat for you. They need software to do things faster and this software is a Railway Ticket Reservation system which keeps data on how many tickets are already booked? how many seats are remaining? what are the cost of the ticket and stuff like that?

Periodic Table
Library Management System
More Computer Projects

Maths Project :

Polygon Analysis: Determine a formula that calculates the number of diagonals in a convex polygon in terms of a number of sides. Base Difficulty

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