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Adaptive braking (ABS)

Details :
It provide better mechanism for braking and helps biker to control bike effectively. ABS (Anti lock braking system) generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers; however, on loose surfaces like gravel or snow-covered pavement, ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle control.

Wall Climbing Robots

Wall climbing has been done by lot of animals such as lizard, chameleon etc. Now days, robotics engineers started to develop robots which can climb walls. These robots can be used in firefighting, spying or for capturing videos.

Solar Powered Path Finding vehicle



To build this project you need to answer two important questions:

First, How to use solar to power the Robot?
It is fairly easy to implement, just buy one electronic toy car and Install PV cells at the top of it. Connect these cells to the rechargeable batteries.

Get Details about Solar Vehicle
How Solar Panels Power a car?
Presentations of Solar-Powered Endurance Vehicle Project


How to build your own solar vehicle?
Cheap easy Solar Powered Robot
Solar Powered 10 mg Silicon Robot(pdf)

And
Second, How to implement path finding in your vehicle?
Path finding is a technique to move robot from point A to point B avoiding any obstacle in the path. We can many different techniques for that but the most popular one is to first make our robot familiar with the surrounding and then robot can use surrounding information in Path finding. This technique is very old and is not useful in challenges where robot doesn’t know anything about the surroundings. So, to it more, I am giving you some links of robotics path finding methods.
What is Path Finding ?
Vehicle path-planning in three dimensions using optics analogs
Autonomous Path finding(pdf)

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Build Electric Two Wheeler Bike


Electric bikes are common nowadays, and you can find many of them moving around.I am discussing this project here to give you glimpse about working of electric bike and also how we can build one for us.

Mail Client Projects

Mail client is very important application for users who want there mails directly into there computer. Outlook is one of the most popular mail client example.I am giving you few other open source mail clients which can help you to understand basic working of these clients.

YPOPs! is an application which emulates a POP3/SMTP mail server and provides free POP3 and SMTP access to Yahoo! Mail. It does not depend on Yahoo's POP3/SMTP mail server. You can use a mail client of your choice!

DavMail is a POP/IMAP/SMTP/Caldav/Carddav/LDAP gateway allowing users to use any mail client with Exchange, even from the internet through Outlook Web Access on any platform, tested on MacOSX, Linux and Windows. 

Claws Mail is a GTK+ based, lightweight, and fast e-mail client and newsreader. Supports various format such as POP3, IMAP,SMTP etc. , having multiple accounts, spell-checking, address book, SSL, GPG, filtering, i18n, and more. It is further extended by plug-ins

Jack Mail Client: developed in Java This is a simple mail client uses any mail server with a minimal configuration you will have a robust email client.

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Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)

Standard Hydrogen Electrode consists of a platinum wire sealed into a glass tube  and carrying a platinum foil at one end. The platinum foil is coated with finely divided platinum. The electrode is place in beaker containing an aqueous solution of some acid having one molar concentration of H+ions. Hydrogen gas at 1 bar pressure is continuously bubbled through the solution at a temperature of 298K. the oxidation or reduction in the SHE takes place at platinum foil. Hence, it can act as anode as well as cathode and may be represented as :

Pt, 1/2 H2 (1 bar)/ H+ (1M) or

H+ (1M) 1/2 H2(1 bar), Pt respectively.

If SHE acts as anode then oxidation will take place at it as

H2(g) --> H+ (aq) + 2e-

If SHE acts as cathode then reduction will take place at it as

2H+ (aq) + 2e->H2 (g)

The electrode potentials of other electrodes are determined by coupling them with SHE.The electrode potential of an electrode determined relative to the standard hydrogen electrode under standard conditions is called standard electrode potential. It is represented as E-. The standard conditions are 1M concentration of ions at 298K temperature and 1 bar pressure.

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EMF of the cell


The electrochemical cell consists of two half cells. The electrodes in these half cells have different electrode potentials. When the circuit is completed the loss of electrons occurs at the electrode having lower potential whereas the gain of electrons occurs at the electrode having lower reduction potential where as gain of electrons occurs at the electrode with higher reduction potential. The difference is the electrode potentials of thw two electrodes of the cell is termed as electromotive force (abbreviated as EMF) or cell voltage( Ecell). Mathematically, it can be expressed as



EMF = Ered ( Cathode) - Ered ( Anode) or simply as EMF = Ecathode - Eanode 

Since in the representation of a cell, the cathode is written on right hand side and the anode on left hand side, therefore, EMF of a cell is also sometimes written as EMF = ERight - ELeft = ER- EL


EMF of the cell may be defined as the potential difference between the two terminals of the cell when either no or very little current is drawn from it. It is measured with the help of potentiometer or vacuum tube voltmeter.

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10th grade chemistry projects

Galvanic Cells

The device in which chemical energy is converted into electrical energy is called galvanic cell or electrochemical cell or voltaic cell. In a galvanic cell, a redox reaction is carried out in an indirect manner and the decrease in free energy during the chemical process appears as electrical energy. An indirect redox reaction is such that reduction and oxidation process are carried out in separate vessels. In order to understand this phenomenon, let us consider the Zn-CuS04 reaction as the basis of the cell reaction.


In its simple form, a zinc strip is dipped in the ZnSO4 solution and a copper strip is dipped in the CuSO4 solution taken in separate beakers. The two metallic strips which act as electrodes are connected by the conducting wires through a voltmeter. The two solutions are joined by an inverted U-tube known as salt bridge. The U-tube is filled with the solution of some electrolyte such as KCL, KNO3 or NH4CL to which gelatin or agar-agar has been added to convert it into semi solid paste. A schematic diagram of this cell has been shown.

The deflection in voltmeter indicates that there is a potential difference between the two electrodes. It has been found that the conventional current flows through the outer circuit from copper to zinc strip. It implies that the electrons flow occurs from zinc to copper strip.

Let us know understand working of the cell.

1. Zinc undergoes oxidation to form zinc Ions
Zn2+ + 2 e−  is in equilibrium with Zn: E0 = −0.76 V (Oxidation)

2. The electrons liberated during oxidation are pushed through the connecting wires to copper strip.

3. Copper ions move towards copper strip, puck up the electrons, and get reduced to copper atoms which are deposited at the copper strip.
Cu2+ + 2 e is in equilibrium with Cu: E0 = +0.34 V (Reduction)

Thus the overall reaction is:
Cu2+ + Zn is in equilibrium with Cu + Zn2+

The electrode at which oxidation occurs is anode and that at which reduction occurs is cathode. In the above cell , zinc strip is anode and the copper strip is cathode.Thus in the electrochemical reaction, anode electrode acts as negative terminal and cathode electrode acts as positive terminal.


More :

Salt Bride and its functions 

Details of Galvanic Cells

Galvanic Cells Game

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10th Grade Chemistry Projects

Redox Reactions

What is Redox reaction ?


Chemical reaction involving oxidation and reduction processes are called redox reaction. Oxidation may be defined as the process in which a species(atom,molecule or ion) increases oxidation number by losing one or more of electrons.

Search Engine Projects

When we talk about search engine, there are only few names which comes to our mind such as google,bing or yahoo.Even though, most of our searches happens to be on internet but there are other places such as hard disk, our personal mail folder or our word processor search, these searches are significant too.

There is scope for improvement in all types of search engine whether its desktop based or internet based. In this post I am providing you links of some open source search engines which can help you to understand this tool better.

OSS : An open source search engine and crawler based on best open source technologies: lucene, zkoss, tomcat, poi, tagsoup. A stable, high-performance piece of software. It is a modern search engine and a suite of high-powered full text search algorithms.

AASE(Anarchy Advantage Search Engine) is a search engine that reorders search results with base in the habits of its users. By measuring user activity on the search engine result page the search engine constantly improves the search results.

The Lemur Project develops search engines, browser toolbars, text analysis tools, and data resources that support research and development of information retrieval and text mining software, including the Indri search engine and ClueWeb09 dataset.

TSEP : A simple yet very powerful and fast PHP website search engine. TSEP is built to index your site so it can be searched later within seconds.

CLucene is a C++ port of Lucene: the high-performance, full-featured text search engine written in Java. CLucene is faster than lucene as it is written in C++.

Full text search engine - console tools and GUI frontends for users, program components and libraries for developers.

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Computer Science Projects
Computer final Year Project Ideas